Randomized Algorithms

How to assay Randomized Algorithms?

  • Abundance of witnesses
  • Fingerprint and hashing
  • Foiling an adversary
  • Random sampling
  • Rapidly mixing Markov chains


Las Vegas:


  • Fast algorithm
  • Always produces the correct result for the same input.
  • Execution time depends on the output of the randomizer.

Monte Carlo


  • Users should aware of the input distribution.
  • Output should generate random samples.
  • While performing the experiment the outcome must be known.


  • Makes use of the computer to give statistical sampling for numerical experiments.
  • Implementation of this algorithm is easy.
  • Solution provided to problems is approx.
  • Used for both deterministic and stochastic problems.


  • Result is not accurate as this method is only the approximation of true values.
  • Consumes time.

Flow chart:


  • This algorithm is simple and easy to implement.
  • Any deterministic algorithm can be converted into a randomized algorithm.
  • Performance
  • Efficient
  • Compared to any of the deterministic algorithms they use little execution time and space.
  • Show superior asymptotic bounds


  • Not always reliable.
  • Many of the algorithms may not terminate.
  • The quality depends on the quality of the random number generator used.
  • Unlike others, this algorithm does not use single design principle.


  • Number-theoretic algorithms Primality testing Monte Carlo_x0005_.
  • Randomized algorithms can be used in Data structures, Sorting order statistics and searching computational geometry.
  • Algebraic identities Polynomial and matrix identity verification Interactive proof systems.
  • Randomized algorithms are best for Mathematical programming Faster algorithms.
  • It can also be used in Graph algorithms, Minimum spanning trees, shortest paths finding algorithms, minimum cuts.
  • Counting and enumeration Matrix permanent Counting combinatorial structures.
  • Parallel and distributed computing deadlock avoidance distributed consensus.
  • Probabilistic existence proofs Show that a combinatorial object arises with non zero probability among objects drawn from a suitable probability space.




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